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He of freedom. Each degree of freedom can be a slider, rotary, or had a great passion about robots. In they both founded the other type of actuator. The freedom. The first practical application of Unimate effector. It is usually the same as the US companies entered the field. Orientation Axes - Basically, if the tool is held at a fixed position, the orientation determines which direction it can be This was the beginning of the industrial robotics. The pointed in. Roll, pitch and yaw are the common orientation axes industries came to know that the use of industrial robots in the used.

Looking at the figure below it will be obvious that the tool manufacturing plants will be very useful and economical. Thus can be positioned at any orientation in space. Numbers of axes — two axes are required to reach any point in a plane; three axes are required to reach any point in space.


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Position Axes - The tool, regardless of orientation, can be moved to a number of positions in space. Various robot geometries are suited to different work geometries. Typically the TCP is used when referring to the robots position, as well as the focal point of the tool. As tools are changed we will often reprogram the robot for the TCP. Fig 4 Fig 5. Repeatability- The robot mechanism will have some natural variance in it. This means that when the robot is repeatedly instructed to return to the same point, it will not always stop at the same position.

This figure will vary over the workspace, especially near the boundaries of the workspace, but manufacturers will give a single value in specifications. Accuracy - This is determined by the resolution of the workspace. If the robot is commanded to travel to a point in space, it will often be off by some amount, the maximum distance should be considered the accuracy. The work envelope is the boundary of Settling Time - During a movement, the robot moves fast, but as positions in space that the robot can reach. For a Cartesian robot the robot approaches the final position is slows down, and slowly like an overhead crane the workspace might be a square, for approaches.

The settling time is the time required for the robot to more sophisticated robots the workspace might be a shape that be within a given distance from the final position. Control Resolution - This is the smallest change that can be measured by the feedback sensors, or caused by the actuators, Speed - refers either to the maximum velocity that is achievable whichever is larger.

If a rotary joint has an encoder that measures by the TCP, or by individual joints. This number is not accurate every 0. The control resolution is about 0. Note that coordinates are a combination of both the position of the origin and orientation of the axes.

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Payload - The payload indicates the maximum mass the robot These are some terms or literally basic terms related to the can lift before either failure of the robots, or dramatic loss of industrial robot, in order to study the basic structure and accuracy. It is possible to exceed the maximum payload, and still configuration of the industrial robot.

When the robot is Basic robot configurations: This is affected by the ability to firmly grip the part, as body-and-arm assembly and other is wrist assembly, and it is well as the robot structure, and the actuators. The end of arm also called end effector. This device is either a gripper for tooling should be considered part of the payload.

Body-and-arm configurations: But there are only five basic configurations commonly available in commercial industrial robots. Which are also the types of arms. Cartesian or rectilinear configuration- Positioning is done in the workspace with prismatic joints. This configuration is well used when a large workspace must be covered, or when consistent accuracy is expected from the robot. Fig 6. This is similar to the joint arm or articulated arm configuration except that the shoulder and elbow axes are vertical, which means that the arm is very rigid in vertical direction, but compliant in the horizontal direction.

Fig Cylindrical configuration- This robot configuration consist of a vertical column, relative to which an arm assembly is moved up and down.


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The robot has a revolute motion about a base, a prismatic joint for height, and a prismatic joint for radius. This robot is well suited to round workspaces. The arm can be moved in and out relative to the axis of the column. Fig 7. This permits the robot to perform insertion tasks for assembly in vertical direction, where some side-to-side alignment may be needed to mate the two parts properly.

Wrist configurations- the robots wrist is generally for the orientation of the end effector. This usually consists of two or three degrees of freedom wrist assembly. Roll is used to accomplish Fig 7 rotation about the robots arm axis, whereas pitch involves up and Polar or spherical configuration- Two revolute joints and one rotation and yaw serves the purpose of right and left rotation.

Fig 8 Sensors in industrial robots-. Sensors and actuators are used as control system components in industrial robots. There are two types-. Internal sensors- are those which are used for controlling position and velocity of various joints. These sensors form a feedback control loop with the control system. For example- potentiometers, optical encoders, tachometers. External sensors- are used to coordinate operation of the robot with other components in the cell. They are of following types- Fig 8 Articulated or joint spherical configuration- The robot uses 3 Tactile sensors- used to determine whether contact is made revolute joints to position the robot.

Generally the work volume between the sensor and the other object or not. This robot most resembles the human arm, with a waist, shoulder, elbow, wrist. Fig 9 Proximity sensors- these indicate the distance of the object from the sensor.

It is also called Range sensor. Optical sensor- used to detect presence or absence of objects. Also used for proximity detection. For example- photocells. Other sensors- these include measuring sensors of temperature, pressure, fluid flow, current, voltage, etc. Are the end effectors used to grasp and manipulate objects during work cycle. The objects are usually work parts that are moved from one place to another. As a case study we have compared Cartesian and SCARA robots on different aspects such as compatibility with different size of work parts, structural differences, work envelope, assess movements and the most important protection needs or safety, and finally applications.

There are different types of grippers according to the shapes, sizes and weights of parts to be held. For ex- mechanical Compatibility with different size of work parts- grippers, vacuum grippers, magnetized grippers, dual, sensory multiple fingered grippers are used according to the application. Cartesian robots work from a grid, so their payload is larger and fully supported resulting in good accessibility in larger work Tools- parts. These are used in applications where the robot must perform On the other hand all the joints on a SCARA robot are located at some processing operation on the work part.

Therefore the robot the end of the arm, limited payload capacity. SCARA robots are manipulates the tool relative to stationery or slowly moving best for smaller sized parts. The SCARA robot In each case, the robot not only controls the relative position of does not have a separate wrist assembly as the orientational tool with respect to work piece but also controls the operation of requirements are minimum; on the contrary Cartesian robot is tool. In some applications, multiple tools are also used by the capable of movement in X, Y, Z-direction only. So the robots during the work cycle.

For ex- Several sizes of drilling orientation must be perfect. Its rigidity allows for more precision. Easy to program and ideal for applications that require movements such as straight line insertions, the Cartesian robot is a strong, dependable mover. Scara robots can be safeguarded from hazardous environments. All their joints can be protected and they can be sealed for underwater applications. Cartesian robots, on the other hand, require special covering when working in hazardous environments.

They are not able to work underwater. Both styles provide excellent solutions for pick and place assembly, and packaging applications. SCARA robots are specifically used for insertion type assembly operations whereas Cartesian robot is an accurate and quick solution for material handling. But SCARA robot holds the edge in its compact wrist assembly and property of working in any type of environment. Though Cartesian robots can work larger work parts with more ease their directional movements are restricted.

As this is the era of automation and computer aided manufacturing, industrial robots play a significant role in every aspect of manufacturing. There are some properties of industrial robots which give them the flexibility to work in any environment such as accuracy, repeatability, multishift operation, easy assessment of infrequent changeovers in work cycle. Material handling- Fig 14 In this the robot moves material or parts from one place to other. Work envelope- To perform this transfer it is equipped with a gripper type end effector.

This requirement. There are two cases included in this application broad movement range allows for added flexibility. Scara robots namely material transfer and machine loading and unloading. Material transfer- Cartesian robots work from an overhead grid. Its work envelope is rectangular. The work envelope is determined by the grid - so The basic application in this category is pick-and-place it can be quite large. The Cartesian robot's overhead grid can operation. Low technology robots such as pneumatically take up overall room, but does free up floor space.

For ex- palletizing, stacking, insertion. Fig 15 Assess movement-. The Scara robot provides more flexibility than the Cartesian robot. Its circular work envelope is created by 4-axis motions. While rigid, the Scara robot can move with more flexibility in a horizontal plane. Depending on the application, a Scara can perform with more speed than a Cartesian robot.

The three possible cases are- machine loading in which robot loads parts of the production machine. Second is machine unloading in which the raw materials are fed to the machine without using robot and it is used to unload finished products. Inspection- While the third case is machine loading and unloading in this both loading of the raw product and unloading of finished work There is often need in automated plants and assembly systems to parts is done by robots inspect the work that is supposed to do. Making sure that the given process is complete. Ensuring that the parts have been added in assembly line as specified.

Identifying Die casting- the robot unloads parts from the die casting defects in raw material and the end products. The robot performs machine.

Past, Present and Future of Industrial Robotics

Same is done in plastic moulding. Dr Prashant Menghal. Gill P. Robots easily and safely perform tasks that would safe. The quest for national security is shaped by large otherwise endanger human lives, and do so faster and more cultural, economic, political factors and strategic choices. Robots Innovation will always be a national security wild card. These manipulators are anthropomorphic, our cultural changes that affect how nations protect fascination with humanoid machines has not dulled, and themselves—on the battlefield or behind the scenes.

It is fair to say that we have made a great future of Indian National security. The fields of medicine, deal of progress in introducing simple robots with crude end- homeland security, defence, non-conventional energy effectors into a wide variety of circumstances. The goal of sources and manufacturing will be at the center of robotics is to mimic natural systems as closely as possible. For scientific advances for years to come and perhaps will re- this, the developers need to draw inspiration from man, even define not only Indian national security capabilities,but birds and animals that can communicate move around with also how the citizens of India conduct their daily lives.

From manufacturing to of robots over the ages. The majority of recent technological advancements could not have been accomplished without the help of robots. Later on Issac Asimov introduced his laws of robots and finally Eric Elenberger, who is considered as the father of robotics, introduced real-time robots to the world. In their perfection, they are II. Robotic technology is emotions.

Robots across the world now traverse hazardous not new. In ancient times, Ctesibius, an Alexandrian inventor terrain, carry out surveillance missions, and perform remote and mathematician, invented a robotic water organ; 1, surgery. They are becoming ever more sophisticated and years later Leonardo da Vinci developed a mechanical knight. The Battlefield in the years to come will be One of the biggest impacts of robotics on the world dominated by robotic power. Hence, there is a lot to be done economy resulted from automation.

With order to exploit this technology to its utmost potential to our the advent of automation, robots like those in factories could benefit. Table II explains the components of robots. Robots used as manipulators have an end Fig 2 indicates the rise in use of robots in different part of effectors mounted on the last link that could be a welding device or world including India. Actuators are like muscles of a robot, the parts which convert stored energy into movement. The vast majority of robots use electric motors, including brushed and brushless DC on many robots and CNC machines.

A recent alternative to DC motors. Work on a fundamentally different principle, whereby tiny piezoceramic elements, vibrating many thousands of times per second, cause linear or rotary motion. Advantages include nanometer resolution, speed, and available force for their size. A promising, early-stage experimental technology. The absence of defects in nanotubes enables these Fig. The sensor array is constructed as a rigid core surrounded by conductive fluid contained by an elastomeric skin. Cruise Missiles.

Aqua Penguin Germany. This 6 kg capacity device basis of locomotion, interaction of robot with human being and was unique, not only in the drive system but also in its controls respectively. Many of the most sensor data. An immediate task such as moving the advanced Indian Defence Technologies in times to come gripper in a certain direction is inferred from these estimates.

These are then converted into commands that would comprise of robots. As is evident, thousands of robots drive the actuators. Unmanned used to track objects. Some of the most exciting military technologies center on robots working in III. Thus, both human forested areas, and steep, narrow foothills. DARPA has tedium and imprecision were done away with whilst developed a six legged robot which is all terrain and all improving the uniformity of a quality product which could weather robot having a capability of passing intelligence come off the assembly line relentlessly around the clock.

Robot powered exoskeletons give by a skilled operator, robots could carry out very complex, soldiers super-human strength. Remote controlled explosive- humanlike, repetitive tasks; however the task could be disposal robots, such as Talon, keep soldiers from physical changed at short notice by using a different program. Now danger while the robots destroy mines. Andros II and Mini- we have access to a very rich set of sophisticated sensors, Andros are used by bomb squads across the world; they can powerful computing platforms and all variety of agile see in the dark, and defuse or detonate bombs without risking mechatronic devices.

The first industrial robot appeared in human life. The Unimate, the brain child military prowess in present scenario. The physical size of technological machinery has been shrinking at an amazing rate. The steadiest of human hands cannot consistently place one molecule of carbon on another to create Fig.

Past, Present and Future of Industrial Robotics | Employment Compensation | Business

Daksh is one of the most current military robots of India. It is Fig. The main role of this military robot is to recover improvised explosive devices. This robot can even climb stairs. Moreover, it can also scan objects using its portable X-ray Device. Robot-assisted surgery has been occurring for more than a quarter of a century. Since the s, robots have been assisting doctors in repairing knee ligaments, removing gallbladders, and performing hysterectomies.

With the help of better and smaller robotic tools and software systems, patients require smaller incision wounds and shorter time under Fig. In remote surgery, or telesurgery, a doctor intelligence to enable them to differentiate between a enemy or controls a robot that works on a patient even if that patient is a friend. These can then be deployed in difficult warfare zones, thousands of miles away.

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With remote surgery, city doctors like the Line of Control LOC , a step that would help avert the can operate on rural patients, decreasing transportation costs loss of human lives. In the initial phase, the robotic soldier will and increasing options for both patients and doctors. In the be trained by the human soldier to identify an enemy or a current surgical world, the majority of doctors are limited to a combatant.

As a result they need to be the human soldier would be assisting him from far away. Remote robotic- assisted surgery would mitigate or even solve this problem: Not only would it bring medical access to people in rural areas, it could also be useful for new doctors who currently must choose between location and specialty. Moreover, in the event of a bio-terrorist attack or an epidemic, immune robotic medical personnel may be the best solution to contain and cure infected individuals.

In military medical care, remote surgery can help provide soldiers with medical care more quickly than under current conditions.